As a common morphological change of blood vessels, tortuosity of blood vessels can occur in various arteries and veins of the body. The tortuosity of the internal carotid artery (ICA) was first recognized in the late 19th century.
EICA tortuosity is defined as the excessive elongation and distortion of the blood vessels from the bifurcation of the carotid artery to the petrous bone at the base of the skull, showing a "C" or "S" shape, or even the abnormal vascular shape like folding into an acute angle, or looping, or tying. Currently, there are three main types of ICA tortuosity:
Weibel-Fieldsl classification is based on large-scale angiography and cadaver studies to divide the tortuous ICA into three types according to the shape: Tortuosity: The arteries elongate or undulate into a "C", "U" or "S" shape; Coiling: The arteries are elongated or redundant to spiral around an axis to form a "spiral" shape; Kinking: The arteries are tortuously twisted into an acute angle and form a "V" shape. As shown in Figure 1.
In addition, Metz classified the severity of the circuity Angle by DSA track one side of ICA, Measuring circuity ɑ and dividing circuity blood vessels into three categories: Level Ⅰ (mild kink) : 60 ° ≤ ɑ < 90 °; Level Ⅱ (moderate kink) : 30 ° ≤ ɑ < 60 °; Level Ⅲ (severe kink) : ɑ < 30 °, as shown in Figure 2
Grade of kink.
A: Level I, B: Level II, C: Level III
At present, Trandomed has provided numerous of 3D printing tortuous carotid artery models for the medical testing, training and demonstration based on CT data of hundreds of patients. The models are like below:
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